Madhya Pradesh Geography


State Madhya Pradesh lies in Central of India this often called "Heart of India". Till year 2000, it was the largest state of India with Chattisgarh state. It shares its boundary with states like Uttar Pradesh (East), Chattisgarh (South), Maharashtra (South-West), Gujarat (West), Rajasthan (North-West). Sharing state border with such different geographical conditioned states, we can find glimpse of varying geographical conditions in Madhya Pradesh. Here geographical conditions are divided into several geo-structural divisions. Here two important mountain ranges can be seen i.e. Vindhyan range and Satpura range. They have many branches but mainly moves from West to East, covering large ground area. All major tiger reserves and wildlife sanctuaries are nestling on these mountain ranges. They occupies main Southern & Central region of state. Northern region of states comes under Bundelkhand region which is comparatively dry and rocky. Where as Western region comes in Malwa Plateau which is comparatively more plan with moderate rainfall. Where as Southern and Eastern region comes in Deccan trap with hilly terrain and vegetation is dense. It is more green and fertile.


Madhya Pradesh is having varying geographical condition. Here we can find mainly two type of landscapes. From Central to North of state, we will find the land as part of Central India Highlands where as Southern region is part of Deccan trap which goes until southern India. In North part of state, we will find Chambal and Son rivers, influencing the geographical conditions. Destinations like Gwalior, Shivpuri, Orchha, Datia etc falls in this region. If we proceed little bit south we wil find two major rivers i.e. Betwa and Ken rivers. Both covers mainly Bundelkhand region which is more rocky and dry. Here we will find destinations like Bhopal, Sanchi, Chanderi, Orchha, Khajuraho and Panna national park. It is dominated by Vindhya rock group and Granite Gneiss. If we move to the Eastern part of Madhya Pradesh, we will find Vindhyachal, Bhander and Kaimur range which is rich in minerals like limestone, copper, aluminium etc. Here Sone river, Mahanadi, Banas river, Gopad river have their presence. Two important dams i.e. Bansagar Dam and Mahan Dam are located in this region, having large imact on the geographical conditions of this region. Eastern region is relatively more green and land is fertile thus human density is also high due to presence of many villages. Destinations like Bandhavgarh national park, Rewa, Chitrakoot, Sanjay Dubri Tiger Reserve are located in this region. Now we comes to Southern region of state which is blessed with the presence of life line river Narmada. It is one of the oldest river in India, much older than Ganges. Narmada river valley is known for its fossils. Narmada river valley passes from important places like Amarkantak, Mandla town, Jabalpur, Omkareshwar, Maheshwar etc. It travels from Eastern Madhya Pradesh to Western Madhya Pradesh and all the area, adjoining to this river valley is highly fertile and green. It goes along with Satpura mountain range in which popular wildlife destinations like Kanha national park, Pench tiger reserve, Satpura tiger reserve are located. In this region we will find other tributaries of Narmada like Banjar river, Denwa river, Shipra river etc. 

Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India it has a hot dry summer(April-June) followed by monsoon rains (July-September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm (53.9 in). It decreases from east to west. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and north-western districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less. It is the good geographical condition and climatic condition which promotes Madhya Pradesh tourism to its current level.

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